Moștenire armenească (textul meu în engleză)

Armenia is today a small country located South of the Caucasus Mountains, where Europe, Asia, and Asia Minor meet. There is ongoing debate whether Armenia is a European or an Asian country. Its sacred mountain, though partly a Turkish territory, is Mount Ararat, the National symbol of Armenia, a mountain that is mentioned in all three Abrahamic religions as the place where Noah’s Ark landed, after journeying for many days after the Biblical flood catastrophe.

Nowadays Armenians have a strong diaspora, which exceeds in number the population living in the Armenian Republic, just like the Jewish diaspora is more numerous than its homeland people. This happened to both people partly because of their turbulent history. Alike Jews, Armenians have a long historical tradition rooted in prehistoric times and they preserved their cultural and linguistic identity in times of exile or occupation.

Once a province of the Roman Empire, Armenia was the first country to adopt Christianity as a state religion, in 301 AD. This Armenian Apostolic Church still exists, separated from both the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church. Later on, Armenian culture was influenced by Christianity (by the Byzantine Empire, by the Crusade States in the High Middle Ages) and by Ottoman Turks.

Different historical factors allowed the creation of a specific Armenian church architectural style, the same that happened with the Venetian specific Gothic style, because of the local history of trade and other exchanges with different cultures. A clear distinctive Armenian feature is the use of figurative relief stone carvings as an intrinsic part of Church architecture. These delicate and rich in detail carvings are characteristic for memorial or funerary stelae or crosses typically carved in stone and are called Khachkars. There are some similarities with Celtic art objects, a fact that can launch the hypothesis of the cultural hybridization possible because of the Early Middle Ages migrations and major trade routes between East and West, like the Silk Road. The typical ringed high Celtic crosses appear in the 9th century, while the first Khachkars are known to be dated back to the 9th century too. The Khachkars art reached a peak in the 12th and 13th centuries. It is very likely that these intricate motifs carved for very rich ornate memorials bear the influence of Muslim elaborate carvings in palaces or mosques. Below, you can see the famous Kachkar at Goshavank, an Armenian monastery built in the 12th-13th centuries.

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By Inna – originally posted to Flickr as 2009.03.08–10.23.43, CC BY 2.0,

The art of Khachkars is still blooming. Many carved memorials commemorate today the Armenian genocide that happened in 1915. The same purpose is assessed to recent crosses like this one, found in front of the Armenian Church in Bucharest, located in the Armenian Quarter, near the place where I live (my picture):

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Another interesting feature is the carving of the symbol of the tree of life, another symbol also found in Celtic artistic representations, known as the Celtic tree of life – a symbol that was adopted from the Norse people, where it was called Yggdrasil. But this archetype of the sacred tree is widely spread in religious and mythological thought. The tree of life is a very common motif in the art of ancient Near East and the Mediterranean world. Below, one of its depictions in carving, at the Armenian church in Bucharest, built in 1911-1915 (my picture):

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I have to add that I found different versions for the widespread symbol of the tree of life, including carpets from the Near/Middle East regions or as far as India that are claimed to represent the tree of life. Maybe more, but my study was not in depth. There is symmetry and sometimes confronting animals or other creatures like in my example above.

Armenian churches have pointed domes, tall and narrow windows, frescoes and carvings, sculptural decorations of the exterior walls. The Armenian Etchmiadzin Cathedral, known as the Holy Mother of God Church is said to be the oldest cathedral in the world, the oldest state-built church in the world. It was founded in the early 4th century and it is an emblem of the Armenian architecture.

This monument of early Armenian architecture, renovated and enriched throughout the centuries, was a model for other Armenian religious buildings and influenced European architecture. Once again, the Armenian church in Bucharest resembles the Etchmiadzin Cathedral, without being a copy of it.

Etchmiadzin Cathedral:
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By Areg Amirkhanian – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,

Bucharest’s Armenian Church (my picture):
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Armenian churches show beautiful, specific bell towers and domes.

Note:
And if you ask yourself why did I pick this topic – I shall answer that I live in Bucharest close to the Armenian Church and to Armenian and Jewish ”quarters”, maybe obsolete terms now compared to other times, and I wrote this for an online course that I took, and an odd thing is that the Armenian Church in Bucharest, the old one, was commisioned on the date of my birth, 16th of February, plus this new one was founded on the 24th of July, a day to remember as being my name’s saint day – Saint Christina – both for Catholic and for Orthodox Churches. Moreover, the grandma who raised me spent much of her life near the church, exactly in front of it, where she had a workshop, together with my grandpa who died when I was 4 years of age:

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Despre cunoaștere… concluziile mele și ipotezele mele în limba engleză

I. Truth and knowledge


This logical question troubled me for a long time. Let’s say these are my simple conclusions or questions, aligned with philosophy school books.

What do I know about truth, either objective or subjective? I might have asked. From which moment on a thought or a perception becomes a truth? In fact, what is a truth, is it objective or real? Is it subjective or hidden within, so no one can agree about it, not even ourselves being able to uncover it? We use to think that subjective means unique so that the truth is ours, opposing objectivity and reality. Of course, the inner reality is also a reality, but can it be adequate, can it duplicate the objective truth? My personal belief is that subjective truth can duplicate itself too, because the virtual reality acts like a mirror, giving to us virtual images of the world. I also mean that the objective truth is not singular, but multi-present. Its perception differs though. In ancient Japan, mirrors were venerated and represented truth, and one mirror is associated with the goddess of the Sun and the universe, Amaterasu. Many selves can share one image of that universal mirror (reality or appearance) and that communal image, as embedded in our brains, can be the object of deductive thought and can become a universal truth. The objective truth depends upon the subjective truth because humans are not isolated creatures. They are inside the reality as mirrors who mirror other mirrors. And this creates a circuit that cannot be broken for the healthy individual. From outwards inwards and back and so forth. For sight and the other senses too. For subjective idealist thinkers, only the mental reality exists, so our perceptions are considered to be ultimately the creation of our minds. Theories of self-control, theories about the autonomy of will in the modern sense, are in the same line of heritage. For the ancient Greeks, for the Homeric Greece, human senses are considered to be a faulty device, because humans have imperfect senses or reason, and Gods play with their feelings, and with their fate too. Everyone remembers Odysseus’ travels and the way that Gods test his qualities, seldom showing their true image; human senses are many times said to be deceptive and weak, and in Homer’s Iliad too. Nowadays scientists talk about subjectivity and individual variation. But most of them assume that empirical knowledge is possible. Nonetheless, I believe that the empirical truth, in its essence, cannot be shared with others (even if the brain’s waves and activity can be projected right in front of our eyes) and its reality is questionable, being transient. It is, in any case, the truth about the elusive moment in time, while deductive truths hold the constants, like geometry, can draw perfect abstract shapes, that apparently cannot exist and cannot be measured precisely. They are the tools, a pragmatic reality, yet the only one that can be acknowledged. The expanse of the human knowledge odyssey seemed to have been drastically growing in scale in later decades, just like the metric system had to be enriched with twice as much larger or smaller „units” in only three decades, symmetrical to zero, as if to stress the philosophical principle that man is the measure of all things. This is the principle that states that knowledge is, in fact, the subjective truth. First, we have to come back to Ithaca from our knowledge odyssey, and that is the pedagogical value of Socrates’ maieutics.

That’s why Kierkegaard’s philosophy and others’ too, are a good reminder of our duty or maybe compulsion to know ourselves, in order to choose a way of living or knowing. In order to understand, to find the inner truth without being vain, just like Socrates did. First by understanding the power of negation, that not knowing from within, our personal center between the accepted truths and well-established values. But this goal of understanding cannot be a stated goal alone, because we don’t have do demolish gods or institutions or humans in order to be critical. Any kind of criticism or knowledge can be reasonable only after, or secondary to obeying tradition. As individuals, we are part of a system, thus our knowledge from inwards simply cannot happen without respect and love for well-established facts. I mean that knowledge is never (it cannot be) anarchic.

But, as man has logical abilities, both inductive and deductive, it can be asserted that subjective truth, only through (logical) reason can be founded. I think that the fact that it can duplicate or travel through the same logical framework is clear enough. That’s what rationalist philosophers do, by rooting human knowledge in our human minds, exactly where it belongs. Vedic literature and some mystic philosophies try to trespass the boundaries of knowledge, understanding our subjective knowledge not only as truth but as illusion or as a kind of participation or power. Anyway, the human mind is active and can transform reality, it is not a mere mirror, it can be deceptive, but the subjective truth exists. That’s why many scholars search not for a perfect machinery of senses, but for a perfectly universal, that is logical mind. The senses are vehicles of virtual reality, just like books, are vehicles for subjective truth. The human brain can acquire knowledge through its power of under-standing, that is under-standing the power of logical truth. It does so not because it is a kind of musical or technology genius, not because it is a powerful microscope designed exactly for the human sight and human eye lenses, but because it can link meanings (Intellegere in Latin). And after all, my personal belief is in accordance with these ideas, because the subjective truth can meet God, understood as Truth and Logic and Goodness too (Order and Being). Apart from sensory reality as illusion or knowledge, the truth held by beliefs can be explained in a fairly similar manner.

I believe that the concept of God is central in our inner map of concepts expressed in words, but, because of its subjective connotations and its many manifestations in people’s minds, it is a low definition concept, like a nebula on the sky. It is central yet linked with many others, central to the way the concepts of mother or water are, but it is not as clear as other central concepts. It is dispersed. Central because most everyone has a notion of God. Socrates’ thought is about skepticism and a rational method of knowledge, more than about a clear result. Socrates does this: he tries to define the concept of „piety”. Most of his work means to define concepts or to make them real, meaningful. Some of those concepts, like piety or God are too subjective (this time I mean too emotional or related to individual experiences by their very nature) to be defined. Most of the human knowledge is expressed in or related to verbal language. Maybe I went too far in clarity with my exploits here, while Socrates only helps people to clarify themselves, thus for colloquial purposes a more indefinite style of speaking, like that of Socrates, is beneficial. This was one of his qualities, that irony of pretending that he does not know, in order to put the logical machinery to work.

Socrates’ maieutic is obviously sustained by his conviction that a part of human knowledge is hidden and innate. Aporia means the real question, that one which can illuminate the unconscious and make the inner seed germinate. I am referring to other nativist thinkers like Noam Chomsky, with his innate predispositions theory. Or to the psychoanalysis theory and so on. Usually, the brain does not ask a question by itself, unless it is exposed to a state of cognitive dissonance (a concept developed by Leon Festinger; a state of puzzlement similar to the concept of aporia). This cognitive dissonance is triggered by the environment, by a conflict between one’s conscious beliefs or knowledge and a new perspective. The question needs an answer, just like the contradiction creates a reconsideration of previous answers. Aporia is the puzzlement. When a question is not solved by an answer, it enters the unconscious structures which contain innate knowledge predispositions, being a fertile ground for successive answers. It does not mean necessarily that it acts all of a sudden in a discursive way, but, following the newly acquired data, in a shorter or longer time it creates other connections, until the solution emerges, so as the consistency of personal beliefs or knowledge is obtained. Or, if the answer does not come into the light, the question can lead to the change of behaviors. Like this, Socratic aporia – exemplified in Plato’s aporetic dialogues – can be a factor of change in one’s beliefs, conduct, or even the trigger for knowledge achievements, by its seminal role of liberating and engaging inner structures or predispositions of knowledge. Like this, a new knowledge or attitude is brought to life. My explanation is that it is a kind of individuation of knowledge or self-actualization of understanding.

I believe in the gradual development of one’s inner cognitive functioning. The person’s convictions are shattered by any kind of „aporia”/puzzlement situation and the ego cannot build for the moment another layer of defenses in order to overcome the lack of consistency or coherence in one’s knowledge. The person’s system of knowledge is like an onion with many layers superposed concentrically around the germinative core inside it. I use this metaphor of the onion because I need to stress the fact that knowledge is gradual, from the innermost part progressing towards the externalization and conscientiousness of truths and backward. It is the combination of inductive (empirical) thinking, from the exterior to the interior, followed by the opposite brain process – the deductive thinking and the acquisition of new theories or knowledge when the collected data makes this possible. Effectively these processes are overlapping. This is the way I understand the phenomenology of the spirit. The whole corpus of knowledge of one civilization builds a kind of growing onion or fortress of thought or spiritual foundation, around which other cultural acquisitions are built in layers, without demolishing the inner walls. Or like a church being built over the ruins of older churches. The same applies to the human individuation of knowledge. The process of gradual understanding of the world, with its aha moments, travels through one’s organized and structured neuro-psychological foundation, building new bridges inside his brain and thus between his psyche and the world, as you pointed. The individual changes his way to relate to events. But in order to organize further, to dig further into knowledge, one needs data from the environment and some kind of innate categories or abyssal frameworks or simply innate abilities permitting the unseen computation of knowledge. Through this long-term process, the unconscious mind always acts in order to reestablish the logic of the system, until the conscious mind eventually finds the truth – the solution to the aporia state of mind. The aporia situation prepares the mind for future acquisitions and reinforces the willingness to acquire new data, through a selective process. The individual becomes open-minded preferentially for the facts that relate to the solution for the aporia state of mind.

IIAm I a Truth, do I exist if no one can know me?

At first, it seems that the answer is yes. I am a human being and I am:

  1. an embryo or a fetus in my mother’s womb – she cannot notice me at all, neither through touch nor through sight – the ultrasound image is not invented yet – and yet I exist. But how can I tell for sure that there is no God who knows everything about how I might look or even about how I look in reality, summing up different other facts of knowledge about my parents?
  2. a corpse in its grave – no one can see me and GPR (ground penetrated radar) is not invented yet – and yet my earthly remains are there, I exist as matter, not as a living human being. But how do I know that there aren’t people or other animal sensors or a God who can penetrate the ground and perceive something of what’s below?
  3. etc. It seems that I can exist even if I am not observed.

If I think about the inorganic and lifeless matter, it seems that human knowledge encompassed all – and they know about all kinds of strange meteorites, whose chemical compositions they can observe through comparisons with the other rock substances that they already know. Yet new elements are still discovered, new species appear maybe beforehand – before being observed by humans. Didn’t all of them exist before being observed?

It seems that it is unquestionable that things and living things exist even if there’s nothing to observe them. But halt! To sum it all up:

  • we live in a system – whatever you call it, ecological or not, and in this system all parts are connected with other parts of the system or with the law of functioning of the system as a whole; moreover the system has clear logical rules – whatever you call them (entropy, evolution, communication, synergy etc.). What happened with my astrological sign on the sky when I was born could indeed have some influence upon me, indirectly maybe…
  • even if I don’t see at some moment in time the red hourglass on the black widow’s abdomen, I am familiar with it and my knowledge too is linked with others’ memory. And that tiny creature perceives things that are related to its life, and those things perceive other things etc. It is a chain of information, not only a food chain. Each thing or creature can be a mirror that perceives the other mirrors related to her proximity or life needs. Maybe God is the logical connection of information in this huge universal web of things. Thus everything can be observed, directly or indirectly. Even plants can perceive different things.

My conclusion is that observation is a chain of events in the universe and maybe nothing exists without being observed at least from a distance through intermediate things. This media – the way the message is transmitted – can span over centuries, until human knowledge about that thing is lost, or it can span over years of light distance or over a huge chain of biological evolution. Information cannot disappear at once with the death of someone’s living memory – because it is transformed into other things. Sometimes the things that are not observed come into question by themselves. Time cannot stop. When I look at someone I see the mirror of his eyes that look into the mirrors of my eyes and so on, I don’t see him like he is right now, the present time is an abstraction between past and future. My conclusion is that it is always something or someone to observe me or you or anything else in this world. And if there weren’t, then I cannot deny the existence of God.

Like any other things – stones, grass, clouds, stars, moon, metals, water, birds, other mammals and so on, yes, I am true. It happens that I am a form of life and yet I listen to the general rules of chemistry and physics and I am composed of perfectly organized and similar molecules or subatomic particles – this adds more to the mystery of knowledge and the fact of being human – both individual and social character, both “king” of the planet and part of the biomass, both reason or spirit and body or matter of all things – this fact of being human adds more dilemmas too.

I am a real thing, but I am not perfectly knowledgeable, except for God alone, if He is understood by the absolute logical order of things and knowledge. I am a reality of this world, of this moment (that cannot stop in time) and thus I am a shifting reality, just like all the rest. I cannot be grasped in this ever-changing world where others can affect me or my image in others’ eyes. My image in others’ eyes depends on many things and it is unique for every other person who perceives me.

All the things I just wrote are wordplay, futile things. But they matter to me because my reality as a human being is wordy and worldly. Just 2 L-s inside „wordy” and this makes sense of a luminal experience. We are inside the world, inside the lumen; in my mother tongue lume means world; and lumină means light, from the Latin root. Being like this, being born inside it, we live through words – In the beginning was the word. I feel that the wondrous world of semantics and other connected fields of knowledge like biosemantics or semiotics are an answer to the quest. Seeing it all interconnected and understanding how subjective experiences are only logical and often wordy things – this makes everything more beautiful. And beautiful and logical things matter.

(aprilie-mai 2018)

Pistornic

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Mereu am fost îndrăgostită de obiceiuri vechi. Pînă cînd voi traduce acest text cam vechi al meu în engleză, cel de mai jos, probabil cu multe greșeli, vă las să priviți pozele mele cu pecetarul meu vechi din 1888, din satul bunicilor din sudul Transilvaniei. Inițialele de pe pistornicul meu, scrise în oglindă pentru a putea fi amprentate,  sunt IS – HS – NI – CA, ceea ce pare a însemna victoria lui Iisus Hristos.

I was always in love with traditions in my country, especially traditions related to old Orthodox rituals or those regarding the village life. I spent a part of my childhood in a small village located in the middle of Romania, in southern Transylvania.
It happens that I am in the possession of an old special wooden seal (the oldest object in my house), which I cherished with all my heart. It is dated 1888 and it was used for stamping the sacramental bread (prosphora) before baking it for being used for the Eucharist. The initials stamped are hard to be deciphered but according to an Orthodox site they are IIS-HRI-NI-KA, what means Jesus Christ Wins. It is been said that prosphora symbolizes the world (usually they are small round slices of bread), but its form differs throughout the Orthodox world. It means sacrifice, offering, symbolizing the sacrifice of Christ, the two natures of the Redeemer (being sometimes baked in two layers) or the Multiplication of Bread also known as the „miracle of the five loaves and two fish” among other things.
You can find explanations in Wikipedia.
In my village and in other villages too, bread is offered as a special handout in funeral ceremonies, at the cemetery gate, along with a candle. I still remember my life as a child there when I went to funerals and I was impressed by the slightly sweet taste of that special bread (that one made in bakeries), maybe one of the most memorable and pleasant tastes in my life. The explanation may be the fact that I was under the influence of the solemn and special ceremony marking those sad events and I was still very young. There, life was quiet and pure and those who passed their final gate went into the old cemetery earth, located on a hillock, on an upper level than the village houses, where ancient crosses blend with wild grasses and a few tall fir trees stay like guardian angels.
I was sad to see my old relatives parting from this world and I will tell you what said one of my great aunts, who died aged 92. „It is hard when you are old but one must take the gift of life as long God grants it. And I think that anyway it is better to stay on the floor level than in the basement.” (She had her favorite words and jokes).
So meanwhile I am still looking at my special seal (pistornic in Romanian), thinking that many things survive for a long, long time on this Earth. This is why our short lives should be filled with joy and peace altogether, this is the only offer that was made for our lifetime, to cherish and respect life in all its forms.